IDeA

Eixo 8 – Currículo e interações na escola

A sociologia da educação há muito já evidenciou que o processo de escolarização pode representar um importante contexto institucional de reprodução das desigualdades, mas tem igualmente demonstrado que, em contrapartida, as características internas das instituições podem agravar ou atenuar diferenças de desempenho vinculadas à origem social dos alunos. Com efeito, para aqueles estudantes mais desfavorecidos quanto às condições socioculturais é que os chamados “efeito escola” e “efeito sala de aula” são mais decisivos. Assim, neste eixo agrupam-se trabalhos que buscam, no funcionamento interno da escola e da sala de aula, modalidades de intervenção e/ou características de atuação que possam incidir positivamente na redução das iniquidades educacionais e, de modo especial, na melhoria dos resultados acadêmicos em contextos de alta pobreza. Foram identificados dois grupos principais de trabalhos: os que focalizam o currículo escolar e os que abrangem as interações na escola, enfocando, por exemplo, o clima escolar ou o desenvolvimento de competências socioemocionais dos alunos.

O primeiro grupo de trabalhos diz respeito, sobretudo, a intervenções pedagógicas que visam adequar o currículo às necessidades específicas do público escolar de baixa renda, de modo a prevenir os riscos do fracasso escolar. A maior parte desses estudos se volta, predominantemente, para duas áreas curriculares: matemática e letramento (construção da linguagem, compreensão de textos, leitura interativa e oral etc.). Destacam-se, também, neste grupo, vários textos que tratam da importância da arte para o incremento do aproveitamento escolar, seja por meio do ensino das artes em si mesmo, como favorecedor de habilidades cognitivas e socioemocionais, seja por meio da integração das atividades artísticas ao ensino das diferentes disciplinas (por exemplo, emprego da música para o ensino de frações, da dança ou do teatro para o desenvolvimento da linguagem), ou, ainda, adoção de um currículo interdisciplinar de artes, letramento e matemática.

O segundo grupo abrange uma variedade de estudos que têm em comum o fato de se debruçarem sobre diferentes dimensões dos processos de interação que ocorrem no interior da escola e da sala de aula, avaliando seus efeitos sobre os resultados educacionais. Uma dessas dimensões, abordada em alguns trabalhos, se refere ao “clima escolar”, importante noção que emergiu nas últimas décadas no campo educacional para designar a qualidade do ambiente escolar, incluindo desde seus aspectos físicos até as relações interpessoais, passando pelo regime disciplinar e acadêmico. Outra dimensão também bastante difundida nos últimos anos é explorada em um relatório que dá conta de 25 programas ditos de “aprendizagem social e emocional” (ASE), que visam à melhoria do ambiente escolar e das condições de desenvolvimento infanto-juvenil. Esses programas operam no plano do desenvolvimento, nos alunos, de competências “socioemocionais” (habilidades interpessoais, prevenção ao bullying, processos emocionais em geral). Outros trabalhos, ainda, focalizam dimensões como a gestão da sala de aula, o envolvimento e a participação estudantil na escola, os relacionamentos na sala de aula e na escola em geral.

Sociology of education has long shown that the process of schooling can represent an important institutional context of inequality reproduction. However, it has also revealed that the internal institutional characteristics can aggravate or attenuate performance differences related to students’ social origin. In fact, “school effect” and “classroom effect” are more decisive to those less financially and culturally privileged. Therefore, in this axis we grouped works that search, within the inner workings of school and classroom, types of interventions and/or characteristics of action that can positively influence the decrease of educational inequalities and, especially, improve academic achievement in high poverty contexts. We identified two main groups of works: those focused on school curriculum and those which approach the interactions in school, targeting, for instance, school climate of the development of students’ social emotional competencies.

The first group refers mainly to works on pedagogical interventions that aim to fit the curriculum to the specific needs of students from low-income groups in order to prevent school failure. Most of these works focus, mainly, in two curriculum areas: mathematics and literacy (constructing language, text comprehension, interactive and oral reading, etc.). There are also in this group several texts on the importance of art to increase school achievement,, through the teaching of arts itself, or as a facilitators of cognitive and socioemotional abilities, through the integration of artistic activities in the teaching of different subjects (for instance the use of music to teach fractions, dance or theater to develop language) or yet by adopting an interdisciplinary curriculum of arts, literacy, and mathematics.

The second group comprehends a variety of studies that analyze the different dimensions of the interaction processes that take place within the school and the classroom, evaluating their effects on educational results. One of these dimensions, approached in some works, refers to the “school climate”, an important notion that emerged in the last decades in the educational field referring to the quality of the school environment, from its physical aspects until the interpersonal relationships, passing through the academic and disciplinary standards. Another dimension that was also highly disseminated in the past years is explored in a report that lists 25 programs of “Social and Emotional Learning” (SEL), which aim to improve school climate and the conditions of development of children and youngsters. These programs try to develop in the students social and emotional competences (interpersonal abilities, bullying prevention, general emotional processes). Other works focus on other dimensions such as classroom management, student participation and involvement in school, and relationships in the classroom and the school.

Inglês

ANDERSEN, Ida Gran; ANDERSEN, Simon Calmar. Student-Centered Instruction and Academic Achievement: Linking Mechanisms of Educational Inequality to Schools’ Instructional Strategy. British Journal of Sociology of Education, v. 38, n. 4, p. 533-550, 2017.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/01425692.2015.1093409

Abstract/résumé/resumo: Research in the sociology of education argues that the educational system provides different learning opportunities for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds and that this circumstance makes the educational process an important institutional context for the reproduction of educational inequality. Using combined survey and register data for more than 56,000 students in 825 schools, this article conducts the first empirical test of the argument that instructional strategies which emphasize student responsibility and activity, also referred to as student-centered instruction, increase educational inequality. We analyze whether the impact of student-centered instructional strategies on academic achievement differs for students with different socioeconomic backgrounds. Results suggest that a student-centered instructional strategy has a negative impact on academic achievement in general, and for students with low parental education in particular. Our findings support the argument that the instructional strategy of schools is an important mechanism in generating educational inequality through the stratification of learning opportunities.

Keywords: educational success, inequality of educational opportunity, instructional strategies, student-centered instruction.

Pesquisas em sociologia da educação argumentam que o sistema educacional oferece diferentes oportunidades de aprendizagem para estudantes de diferentes backgrounds socioeconômicos e que essa circunstância faz do processo educacional um importante contexto institucional para a reprodução da desigualdade educacional. Usando dados de survey e de matrícula de mais de 56 mil alunos em 825 escolas, este artigo conduz o primeiro teste empírico do argumento de que as estratégias instrucionais que enfatizam a responsabilidade e atividade do estudante, também chamadas de instrução centrada no aluno, aumentam a desigualdade educacional. Analisamos se o impacto das estratégias de instrução centrada no aluno nos resultados acadêmicos difere dependendo do background socioeconômico dos estudantes. Os resultados sugerem que a estratégia de instrução centrada no aluno tem um impacto negativo no rendimento acadêmico geral e, em especial, para alunos com pais com baixo nível educacional. Nossas descobertas apoiam o argumento de que a estratégia educacional das escolas é um mecanismo importante para gerar desigualdade educacional por meio da estratificação das oportunidades de aprendizagem.

Palavras-chave: sucesso educacional, desigualdade de oportunidades educacionais, estratégias de instrução, instrução centrada no aluno.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Inglaterra

BALFANZ, Robert; MAC IVER, Douglas J.; BYRNES, Vaughan. The Implementation and Impact of Evidence-Based Mathematics Reforms in High-Poverty Middle Schools: A Multi-Site, Multi-Year Study. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, v. 37, n. 1, p. 33-64, Jan., 2006. https://www.jstor.org/stable/30035051?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Abstract/résumé/resumo: This article reports on the first 4 years of an effort to develop comprehensive and sustainable mathematics education reforms in high poverty middle schools. In four related analyses, we examine the levels of implementation achieved and impact of the reforms on various measures of achievement in the first 3 schools to implement the Talent Development (TD) Middle School Model’s mathematics program that combines coherent research-based instructional materials from the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project with a multi-tiered teacher support system of sustained professional development and in-class coaching. A moderate level of implementation was achieved. TD students outperformed students from control schools on multiple measures of achievement. The average effect size, A, by the end of middle school was.24.

Este artigo relata os primeiros quatro anos de um esforço para desenvolver reformas abrangentes e sustentáveis da educação matemática em escolas secundárias de alta pobreza. Em quatro análises relacionadas, examinamos os níveis de implementação alcançados e o impacto das reformas em várias medidas de aproveitamento nas três primeiras escolas para implementar o programa de matemática do Modelo de middle school do Programa de Desenvolvimento de Talentos, que combina materiais de instrução coerentes baseados em pesquisa. Projeto de Matemática Escolar da Universidade de Chicago, com um sistema de apoio a professores de vários níveis, de desenvolvimento profissional sustentado e treinamento em sala de aula. Um nível moderado de implementação foi alcançado. Os alunos do TD superaram os alunos das escolas de controle em várias medidas de aproveitamento. O tamanho médio do efeito, A, no final do Ensino Médio foi de 0,24.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Estados Unidos

BITTER, Catherine; O’DAY, Jennifer; GUBBINS, Paul; SOCIAS, Miguel. What Works to Improve Student Literacy Achievement? An Examination of Instructional Practices in a Balanced Literacy Approach. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, v. 14, n. 1, p. 17-44, Jan., 2009.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10824660802715403

Abstract/résumé/resumo: A core assumption of the San Diego City Schools (SDCS) reform effort was that improved instructional practices, aligned with a balanced literacy approach, would be effective in improving student outcomes. This article explores this hypothesis by presenting findings from an analysis of classroom instruction data collected in 101 classrooms in 9 high-poverty elementary schools. Data were collected using a literacy observation tool adapted from prior research. The study found a prevalent focus on reading comprehension instruction and on students’ active engagement in making meaning from text. Teachers’ use of higher-level questions and discussion about text were substantially higher than that found by a prior study using the same instrument in similar classrooms elsewhere. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses of instruction and student outcome data indicate that teacher practices related to the higher-level meaning of text, writing instruction, and strategies for accountable talk were associated with growth in students’ reading comprehension.

A hipótese central do esforço de reforma das San Diego City Schools (SDCS) era de que a melhoria das práticas de ensino, alinhada com uma abordagem equilibrada de letramento, seria eficaz para melhorar os resultados dos alunos. Esse artigo explora essa hipótese ao apresentar os resultados de uma análise dos dados de instrução em sala de aula coletados em 101 turmas de nove elementary schools com alto índice de pobreza. Os dados foram coletados usando uma ferramenta de observação de letramento adaptada de uma pesquisa prévia. O estudo descobriu um foco no ensino de compreensão de texto e no engajamento ativo dos estudantes em darem sentido para o texto. O uso de perguntas de alto nível pelos professores e discussões sobre o texto foram substancialmente maiores do que o encontrado em um estudo anterior usando o mesmo instrumento em salas de aula similares em outro local. As análises de modelagem hierárquicas lineares do ensino e dos dados dos resultados dos alunos indicam que as práticas dos professores relacionadas ao significado mais elevado do texto, ensino de escrita e estratégias de fala/debate (accountable talk) estavam associadas com o aumento da compreensão escrita dos alunos.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: San Diego, EUA.

BODOVSKI, Katerina; NAHUM-SHANI, Inbal; WALSH, Rachael. School Climate and Students’ Early Mathematics Learning: Another Search for Contextual Effects. American Journal of Education, v. 119, n. 2, p. 209-234, Feb., 2013.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/667227?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Abstract/résumé/resumo: Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study –Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) – a large, nationally representative sample of US elementary school students, we employed multilevel analysis to answer the following research questions: (a) Does students’ mathematics achievement growth in grades K–3 vary among schools? (b) To what extent does school academic and disciplinary climate explain variation in mathematics achievement growth among schools? © To what extent do students’ and schools’ demographic characteristics explain this variation? While previous studies have examined the effects of school climate on student achievement in middle school and high school, the present study is focused on the effect of school academic and disciplinary climate on students’ mathematics learning in the first 4 years of schooling—from fall of kindergarten to spring of third grade. We found that students’ mathematics achievement growth varies significantly among schools and that students’ improvement in mathematics achievement over time was higher in schools characterized by a stronger climate, above and beyond students’ and schools’ demographic characteristics.

Usando dados do estudo Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) – uma amostra grande e nacionalmente representativa dos alunos de elementary schools nos EUA, empregamos uma análise multinível para responder às seguintes questões: a) O crescimento no rendimento de matemática na pré-escola varia entre as escolas?; b) Até que ponto o clima acadêmico e disciplinar da escola podem explicar as variações no crescimento do rendimento em matemática entre as escolas?; c) Até que ponto as características demográficas das escolas e dos alunos podem explicar essa variação? Enquanto trabalhos anteriores analisaram os efeitos do clima escolar no rendimento dos alunos no middle school e no Ensino Médio, o presente estudo foca no efeito do clima escolar e disciplinar na aprendizagem em matemática nos primeiros quatro anos de escolarização – do outono da pré-escola até o verão do 3º ano. Descobrimos que a melhoria do rendimento em matemática ao longo do tempo é maior em escolas caracterizadas por um clima escolar forte, mais do que as características demográficas dos alunos e das escolas.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Estados Unidos

CUNNINGTON, Marisol; KANTROWITZ, Andrea; HARNETT, Susanne; HILL-RIES, Aline. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms. Journal for Learning through the Arts, v. 10, n. 1, 2014.

https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1050589.pdf

Abstract/résumé/resumo: The “Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning” experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization Studio in a School (STUDIO), in partnership with the New York City Department of Education, the “Framing Student Success” curriculum was designed by experienced professional artist instructors collaborating with school-based visual arts, math, and literacy specialists and classroom teachers. “The Framing Student Success” curriculum units were designed to make explicit connections between subjects (visual arts and ELA or math), while maintaining the integrity, depth and rigor of instruction in both subject areas. While students were receiving arts-integrated instruction during each of the twelve six-week units, classroom teachers and arts specialists were receiving embedded professional development. Regular cross-site professional development was also provided for teachers, specialists, and school administrators. As a randomized control trial study, the three-year “Framing Student Success” study provides robust evidence of the potential impacts of an interdisciplinary, arts-integrated curriculum for students growing up in poverty. The mixed-method study assessed the effects of staff professional development and standards-based arts-integrated instruction in three urban, high poverty elementary schools. Results indicate that rigorous interdisciplinary instruction that links visual arts, literacy, and math skills, and supports cognitive skill development, can increase students’ literacy and math learning while nurturing their art making skills and enhancing their ability to meaningfully reflect on their own work and that of their peers. Qualitative findings suggest that interdisciplinary educator collaborations were critical to project success, and highlight the project’s successful engagement of lower-performing students and students with disabilities. Survey and focus group results suggest that training can build the capacities of teachers, arts specialists, and administrators to implement an interdisciplinary curriculum, providing educators with additional tools to teach engaging, Common Core aligned lessons addressing academic and cognitive competencies.

O programa experimental Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning foi desenhado para desenvolver e testar um programa de ensino que integre um ensino de alta qualidade baseado em padrões, em artes visuais, matemática e letramento. Desenvolvido e implementado pela organização de arte em educação Studio in a School (STUDIO) em parceria com a Secretaria de Educação da cidade de Nova York, o currículo Framing Student Success foi desenvolvido por experientes instrutores artistas profissionais em colaboração com os professores titulares das turmas, os professores de artes visuais, matemática e especialistas em letramento. As unidades do currículo Framing Student Success foram desenhadas para explicitar as conexões entre as disciplinas (artes visuais e linguagem ou matemática), mas mantendo a integridade, profundidade e o rigor de ensino em ambas as disciplinas. Enquanto os alunos recebiam o ensino integrado às artes, durante cada uma das 12 unidades de seis semanas de duração, os professores titulares e os especialistas em artes passavam por um desenvolvimento profissional embutido. O desenvolvimento profissional regular também foi oferecido para os demais professores, especialistas e administradores escolares. Sendo um estudo randômico controlado, o estudo de três anos Framing Student Success oferece evidências robustas dos impactos em potencial que um currículo interdisciplinar com integração de artes pode oferecer para alunos que vivem em locais pobres. O estudo, com diferentes métodos, avaliou os efeitos do desenvolvimento profissional da equipe e do ensino baseado em padrões de artes integradas, e foi realizado em três escolas de Ensino Fundamental urbanas e com alto índice de pobreza. Os resultados indicam que um ensino interdisciplinar rigoroso que ligue artes visuais, letramento, habilidades matemáticas e que apoie o desenvolvimento de habilidades cognitivas pode aumentar o letramento e a aprendizagem matemática dos alunos, enquanto nutre suas habilidades artísticas e aumenta suas habilidades de reflexão sobre seus próprios trabalhos e de seus colegas. Os resultados qualitativos sugerem que as colaborações interdisciplinares dos educadores foram críticas para o sucesso do projeto e enfatizam o engajamento bem-sucedido de alunos com baixo desempenho e com necessidades especiais. Os resultados de uma survey e de um grupo focal sugerem que o treinamento pode construir capacidades nos professores, especialistas em artes e administradores, a fim de implementar um currículo interdisciplinar, dar aos educadores as ferramentas adicionais necessárias para ensinar de forma envolvente as aulas base lidando com competências acadêmicas e cognitivas.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Nova Yrok (EUA)

FARBMAN, D.; WOLF, D. P.; SHERLOCK, D. Advancing arts education through an expanded school day: Lessons from five schools. National Center on Time & Learning, 1-66, June, 2013. (ONG)

http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/pages/advancing-arts-education-through-an-expanded-school-day.aspx

Abstract/résumé/resumo: At a time when analysts describe arts education provision as typically being spotty, casual and brief, this report profiles five schools that are strengthening access to arts education as part of a strategy to expand the school day. The report finds that educators at the schools considered arts to be central to their mission, organized the school day to support arts instruction, and saw the arts as improving student engagement.

Em um momento no qual os analistas descrevem o ensino de educação em artes como tipicamente irregular, casual e curto, esse relatório traça o perfil de cinco escolas que estão fortalecendo o acesso à educação em artes como parte de uma estratégia para expandir o dia escolar. Este relatório descobriu que os educadores nas escolas consideram as artes como sendo central em suas missões, organizando o dia escolar para apoiar o ensino de artes e vendo as artes como uma forma de melhorar o engajamento dos alunos.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Escolas em Massachusetts, Califórnia, Colorado e Rhode Island (EUA)

FREIBERG, H. Jerome; HUZINEC, Chris A.; TEMPLETON, Stacey M. Classroom Management – a Pathway to Student Achievement: A Study of Fourteen Inner‐City Elementary Schools. The Elementary School Journal, v. 110, n. 1, p. 63-80, Sept., 2009.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/598843

Abstract/résumé/resumo: This article examines the achievement effects of a prosocial classroom and instructional management program – Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline (CMCD) – implemented at 14 elementary schools in a single geographic feeder pattern of a large, urban school district. State reading and mathematics achievement data were collected over 2 years for a stratified, random sample of 350 upper elementary students and their matched cohort. Using an archival post‐hoc quasi‐experimental design, test data were collected prior to start‐up and upon program completion, enabling a continuous view of achievement from both groups. Students in CMCD schools outperformed control students. In mathematics, on average, CMCD students ranked at the 67th percentile, while control students ranked at the 50th percentile. In reading, on average, CMCD students ranked at the 64th percentile, while control students ranked at the 50th percentile. These findings are consistent with other studies of CMCD. As the classroom management program does not provide an academic curriculum, findings suggest that other alterable and additive educational variables that improve learning conditions should be examined further.

Este artigo analisa os efeitos no rendimento de um programa de sala de aula pró-social e de gerenciamento de instrução – Consistency Management & Cooperative Discipline (CMCD – Gerenciamento consistente e disciplina cooperativa) – implementado em 14 elementary schools em uma única região geográfica de um distrito escolar grande e urbano. Dados do estado em rendimento em leitura e matemática foram coletados durante dois anos para uma amostra randômica e estratificada de 350 alunos do upper elementary (9-12 anos) e suas coortes correspondentes. Usando um desenho post-hoc quase experimental, dados de teste foram coletados antes do começo e após o programa, permitindo uma visão contínua do rendimento de ambos os grupos. Os estudantes de escolas CMCD tiveram melhor desempenho do que os do grupo controle. Em matemática, em média, os alunos CMCD estavam no 67º percentil, enquanto os do grupo controle estavam no 50º. Em leitura, na média, os alunos CMCD se posicionaram no 64º percentil e os do grupo controle, no 50º. Esses resultados são consistentes com outros estudos do CMCD. Como o programa de gerenciamento de sala de aula não fornece um currículo acadêmico, os resultados sugerem que outras variáveis alteráveis e adicionais que podem melhorar as condições de aprendizagem devem ser mais bem analisadas.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Texas (EUA)

JONES, S.; BRUSH, K.; BAILEY, R.; BRION-MEISELS, G.; MCINTYRE, J.; KAHN, J.; NELSON, B.; STICKLE, L. Navigating SEL from the inside out: Looking inside & across 25 leading SEL programs – A practical resource for schools and OST providers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2017. (ONG)

http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Navigating-Social-and-Emotional-Learning-from-the-Inside-Out.pdf

Abstract/résumé/resumo: This in-depth guide to 25 evidence-based programs—aimed at elementary schools and out-of-school-time (OST) providers—offers information about curricular content and programmatic features that practitioners can use to make informed choices about their Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) efforts. The guide allows practitioners to compare curricula and methods across top SEL programs. It also explains how programs can be adapted from schools to out-of-school-time settings, such as afterschool and summer programs.

Este guia aprofundado de 25 programas baseados em evidências – direcionados para escolas de Ensino Fundamental e programas extraescolares – oferece informações sobre o conteúdo curricular e características programáticas que podem ser usadas para tomar decisões informadas sobre os esforços em Social and Emotional Learning (SEL – Aprendizagem Social e Emocional). Este guia permite a comparação de currículos e métodos dos mais importantes programas de SEL. Ele também explica como os programas podem ser adaptados para contextos escolares e paraescolares, tais como programas de verão ou extraescolares.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Estados Unidos

LUDWIG, M., BOYLE, A., LINDSAY, J. Review of evidence: Arts integration research through the lens of Every Students Succeeds Act. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research, 2017. (ONG)

http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/Arts-Integration-Research-Every-Student-Succeeds-Act-ESSA.pdf

Abstract/résumé/resumo: The Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA) is a sweeping, 391-page law that transforms the federal government’s role in public education. It introduces several new funding streams that states and districts can use to improve schools, including 12 that could be used to support arts integration. But in order to access those funding streams, education agencies must cite evidence demonstrating that the efforts they propose can, in fact, improve student achievement. This literature review explores research available on arts integration activities and finds 44 that could qualify for ESSA funding (10 studies met Tier I-III evidence standards for strong, moderate or promising evidence, while 34 met the Tier IV standard for having a research-based rationale). Interventions include those that use music to teach students fractions, drama to help improve vocabulary and dance to teach kindergarteners to read. Several activities common in such efforts can qualify for ESSA funding, the report suggests. They include professional development for teachers, support for English learners, arts integration courses, procurement of instructional materials and broader school-improvement efforts. Results of such efforts vary widely, the authors write. On average, researchers find modest but statistically significant improvements in student achievement, suggesting that arts integration could move the average student from the 50th to the 54th percentile. This increase, the authors suggest, “put the average effect of arts integration interventions at the 30th percentile among the interventions in mathematics, reading and science reviewed by the What Works Clearinghouse.” While some arts integration efforts may be eligible for ESSA funding, educators must carefully select the interventions they propose. There are no ESSA funds earmarked for arts integration, the report warns, so applicants must clearly explain how their proposed arts-integration interventions relate to their broader goals for their schools. The findings of this literature review are not exhaustive. The authors point to a number of aspects of arts integration that require further study, especially its effects on achievement in specific subjects or among specific student groups. This report is one of several products Wallace has commissioned or prepared to help educators make sense of ESSA’s evidence requirements.

A Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA) é uma enorme lei de 391 páginas que transforma o papel do governo federal na educação pública. Ela introduz várias fontes de financiamento que os estados e distritos podem usar para melhorar as escolas, incluindo 12 que podem ser usadas para apoiar a integração das artes. Contudo, para ter acesso a essas fontes de financiamento, as agências de educação devem mostrar evidências que demonstrem que os esforços aos quais se propõem podem, de fato, melhorar o rendimento estudantil. Essa revisão de literatura explora as pesquisas disponíveis sobre atividades de integração de artes e descobre 44 que poderiam se qualificar para receber fundos ESSA (estudos atingem o Patamar I-III de padrão de evidências, indicando evidências fortes, moderadas ou promissoras, enquanto 44 se qualificam para o Patamar IV por ter racionalização baseada em pesquisa). As intervenções incluem aquelas que usam música para ensinar frações aos alunos, teatro para melhorar o vocabulário e dança para ensinar os alunos do jardim de infância a ler. Muitas atividades comuns nesses tipos de esforços se qualificariam para os fundos ESSA, de acordo com este trabalho. Entre eles, inclui-se desenvolvimento profissional de professores, apoio para aprendizes do inglês, cursos de integração de artes, aquisição de materiais de ensino e melhorarias gerais na escola. Os resultados de tais esforços podem variar muito de acordo com os autores. Em média, as pesquisas encontram melhorias modestas, mas estatisticamente significantes, no desempenho dos alunos, sugerindo que a integração das artes pode deslocar o aluno do 50º para o 54º percentil. Esse aumento, sugerem os autores, “colocaria o efeito das intervenções de integração de artes no 30º percentil entre as intervenções em matemática, leitura e ciências revisadas pela What Works Clearinghouse.” Se alguns esforços de integração de artes podem ser elegíveis para financiamento ESSA, os educadores devem ser cautelosos aos escolher as intervenções propostas. Não há fundos ESSA reservados para integração em artes, adverte o relatório, sendo assim, os candidatos devem explicar claramente como as intervenções de arte-integração propostas se relacionam com os objetivos mais amplos das escolas. Os resultados dessa revisão de literatura não são definitivos. Os autores apontam uma série de aspectos de integração de artes que necessitam de mais estudos, em especial seus efeitos no desempenho em disciplinas específicas ou entre grupos específicos de alunos. Esse relatório é um dos vários produtos que a Fundação Wallace encomendou ou preparou para ajudar os educadores a compreender os requisitos de evidência demandados pela ESSA.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Estados Unidos

MCCLUSKEY, G. Closing the attainment gap in Scottish schools: Three challenges in an unequal society. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, v. 12, n. 1, p. 24-35, 2017.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1746197916683468

Abstract/résumé/resumo: Scotland’s First Minister Nicola Sturgeon has recently said, ‘Improving school attainment is arguably the single most important objective in this programme for Government’ (Parliamentary address, 1 September 2015). Scotland’s levels of academic attainment have become an increasing focus for debate amid continuing concerns that children living in the most deprived areas in Scotland are ‘6 to 13 months behind their peers in problem-solving at age 5; 11 to 18 months behind their peers in expressive vocabulary at age 5; and around two years of schooling behind their peers at age 15’. The link between educational disadvantage and low levels of attainment is well documented in many countries, but particularly troubling in the United Kingdom, where overall levels of inequality are greater than in many other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, including Sweden. This article draws on recent research in three fields of interest, namely student participation, home–school relationships and relationships within school, to explore the challenges for education in improving overall attainment. It considers how these fields of interest connect with each other and with issues of inequality and, finally, argues that they each have the potential to offer a new set of ‘guidewires’ for tackling this challenge.

Keywords: attainment gap, behaviour, relationships, inequalities, parental involvement, pupil participation.

A primeira-ministra da Escócia, Nicola Sturgeon, recentemente declarou que “melhorar o nível de escolaridade é, sem dúvida, o mais importante objetivo desse programa para o governo” (Discurso no Parlamento, 1 de setembro de 2015). Os níveis de escolaridade na Escócia têm se tornado um foco crescente de debate em meio a preocupações contínuas de que as crianças que vivem nas áreas mais carentes da Escócia estão 6 a 13 meses atrás dos seus pares em resolução de problemas quando têm 5 anos; de 11 a 18 meses de atraso frente a seus pares em vocabulário expressivo na mesma idade; e cerca de dois anos de escolaridade atrás de seus pares quando têm 15 anos. A ligação entre desvantagem educacional e baixos níveis de escolaridade é bem documentada em vários países, mas particularmente problemática no Reino Unido, onde os níveis gerais de desigualdade são maiores do que em vários outros países da OCDE, incluindo a Suécia. Esse artigo parte de uma pesquisa recente em três campos de interesse, a saber, participação estudantil, relação casa-escola e relação dentro da escola, para explorar os desafios para a educação a fim de aumentar o nível geral. O trabalho considera como esses campos de interesses se conectam uns aos outros e com questões de desigualdade e, por fim, argumenta que cada um desses pontos tem o potencial de oferecer uma nova série de “fios condutores” para atacar esse desafio.

Palavras-chave: gap de nível escolar, comportamento, relacionamentos, desigualdades, envolvimento parental, participação estudantil.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: Escócia

MCDONALD, Aaron J.; ROSS, Steven M.; BOL, Linda; MCSPARRIN-GALLAGHER, Brenda. Charter Schools as a Vehicle for Education Reform: Implementation and Outcomes at Three Inner-City Sites. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, v. 12, n. 3, p. 271-300, Oct., 2007.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5f4a/97713cf464b080b69a863100d6c4da9b3b1c.pdf

Abstract/résumé/resumo: This study examined the impact of 3 2nd-year charter schools (1 elementary, 1 middle, and 1 high school) on student achievement, school climate, and pedagogy. All schools served predominantly African American students in an inner-city district. Using a matched treatment-control student analytical design, charter school enrollees were individually matched to highly comparable control students of the same ethnicity, poverty level, gender, and ability. Qualitative and descriptive analyses showed reasonable to good progress in program implementation, very strong school climate, positive teacher and parent perceptions, largely traditional but academically-focused teaching, and positive student achievement on state-mandated tests (p less than 0.05 on 12 out of 18 school x cohort x subtest comparisons). Interpretations of results stress the likely implications of teacher and family choice for effective implementation of the charter schools’ academic and organizational programs.

Este estudo examina o impacto de três escolas charter com dois anos de fundação (uma elementary school, uma middle school e uma de Ensino Médio) no rendimento estudantil, clima escolar e pedagogia. Todas as escolas atendem majoritariamente alunos negros em um distrito urbano. Usando o desenho analítico que combinava alunos do grupo de tratamento e de controle, os estudantes das escolas charter foram individualmente combinados com alunos do grupo controle altamente comparáveis quanto a etnia, nível de pobreza, gênero e habilidade. As análises qualitativas e descritivas mostraram um progresso razoável na implementação do programa, clima escolar muito forte, percepções positivas de pais e professores, ensino amplamente tradicional focado no acadêmico e rendimento estudantil positivo nos testes aplicados pelo estado (p menor do que 0,05 em 12 das 18 escolas x coorte x comparações de subtestes). As interpretações dos resultados enfatizam as possíveis implicações das escolhas das famílias e dos professores na implementação efetiva dos programas acadêmicos e organizacionais das escolas charter.

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: três escolas em áreas urbanas nos EUA

POGROW, Stanley. Restructuring High-Poverty Elementary Schools for Success: A Description of the Hi-Perform School Design. Phi Delta Kappan, v. 88, n. 3, p. 223-229, Nov., 2006.

http://www.pdkmembers.org/members_online/publications/Archive/pdf/k0611pog.pdf

Abstract/résumé/resumo: In this second of a two-part series, the author outlines the basic structure of the kind of school that will help the children of poverty gain ground and so reduce the learning gap. In an attempt to establish far more effective high-poverty schools, the author proposes one approach, which is the Hi-Perform School redesign for high-poverty elementary schools. In this article, he describes the Hi-Perform School design and discusses three interventions he incorporated into the design namely, (1) Modularized Continuous Progress; (2) Participation in dramatic and musical productions; and (3) Thinking-skill-development sequence anchored by the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS).

Nesta segunda e última parte da série, o autor dá os contornos da estrutura básica do tipo de escola que pode ajudar as crianças pobres a ganhar terreno e, assim, reduzir o gap de aprendizagem. Em uma tentativa de estabelecer escolas muito mais efetivas em meios de alta pobreza, o autor propõe uma abordagem, o redesenho Hi-Perform School para elementary schools de alta pobreza. Neste artigo, ele descreve o desenho da escola Hi-Perform e discute três intervenções incorporadas no desenho, a saber, 1) Progresso contínuo modularizado; 2) Participação em produções de teatro e musicais; e 3) Sequência de desenvolvimento de habilidades de pensamento ancorada nas Habilidades de Pensamento de Alto Nível (Higher Order Thinking Skills – HOTS).

Field of research/terrain de recherche/local da pesquisa: -

Inglês

BRANDT, Ron. The Case for Diversified Schooling. Educational Leadership, v. 59, n. 7, p. 12-19, Apr., 2002.

http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/apr02/vol59/num07/The-Case-for-Diversified-Schooling.aspx

Parents hold strong and diverse views about the methods and goals of education. Instead of imposing a “one option for all” system, public schools should respect these differences by combining intentional diversification with meaningful parent choice. The board of education in my community of Fairfax County, Virginia, was divided over whether to adopt mathematics textbooks recommended by the district selection committee. The committee’s first choice was the Everyday Mathematics program, which aligns with the state curriculum standards and emphasizes active learning, understanding, and the language of mathematics. Opponents – including some teachers, parents, and board members – preferred the Saxon textbook series, with its more traditional approach. The selection committee had endorsed two other textbook series as options that each of the district’s 132 schools could choose instead of Everyday Mathematics, but did not recommend Saxon as an option. The question was, How much disparity should the school district permit? Everyday Mathematics is the product of almost 20 years of research and development by a highly qualified team of educators at the University of Chicago, with support from the National Science Foundation, and is in accord with the platform of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. I think it’s an excellent program – but some people, including some professional mathematicians, do not.

CARLSON, Deven; BORMAN, Geoffrey D.; ROBINSON, Michelle. A Multistate District-Level Cluster Randomized Trial of the Impact of Data-Driven Reform on Reading and Mathematics Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, v. 33, n. 3, p. 378-398, Sept., 2011.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3102/0162373711412765

Analyzing mathematics and reading achievement outcomes from a district-level random assignment study fielded in over 500 schools within 59 school districts and seven states, the authors estimate the 1-year impacts of a data-driven reform initiative implemented by the Johns Hopkins Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (CDDRE). CDDRE consultants work with districts to implement quarterly student benchmark assessments and provide district and school leaders with extensive training on interpreting and using the data to guide reform. Relative to a control condition, in which districts operated as usual without CDDRE services, the data-driven reform initiative caused statistically significant districtwide improvements in student mathematics achievement. The CDDRE intervention also had a positive effect on reading achievement, but the estimates fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.

Keywords: distance education, community college, propensity score, multilevel design.

DURU-BELLAT, Marie. Social Inequalities in the French Education System: The Joint Effect of Individual and Contextual Factors. Journal of Education Policy, v. 15, n. 1, p. 33-40, Jan.-Feb., 2000.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/026809300285999

This paper presents a synthetic picture of social inequalities in pupils’ scholastic careers in France. Individual factors such as socio-economic background remain important for both academic results from the beginning of schooling on and option and streaming choices at the secondary level. Moreover, families have unequal resources to manage their children’s schooling careers in a system which is becoming more complex and decentralized. This means that contextual factors are also very important. Decentralization has in fact increased the importance of choice of schooling context: the class or the school attended does make a difference and this has the effect of widening social gaps in academic results and socialization. The present trend towards more autonomous schools fosters inequalities resulting from contextual factors but inequalities are also produced by the downgrading of degrees resulting from the fact that employers are requiring ever-higher degrees in a period of job shortage.

HOY, Wayne K.; TARTER, C. John; HOY, Anita Woolfolk. Academic Optimism of Schools: A Force for Student Achievement. American Educational Research Journal, v. 43, n. 3, p. 425-446, Autumn, 2006.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/4121765?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Researchers have been challenged to go beyond socioeconomic status in the search for school-level characteristics that make a difference in student achievement. The purpose of the present study was to identify a new construct, academic optimism, and then use it to explain student achievement while controlling for socioeconomic status, previous achievement, and urbanicity. The study focused on a diverse sample of 96 high schools. A random sample of teachers from each school provided data on the school’s academic optimism, and student achievement scores and demographic characteristics were obtained from the state department of education. A confirmatory factor analysis and hypothesis tests were conducted simultaneously via structural equation modeling. As predicted, academic optimism made a significant contribution to student achievement after controlling for demographic variables and previous achievement. The findings support the critical nature of academic optimism.

LAVRIJSEN, Jeroen; NICAISE, Ides. Educational Tracking, Inequality and Performance: New Evidence from a Differences-in-Differences Technique. Research in Comparative and International Education, v. 11, n. 3, p. 334-349, Sept., 2016.

http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745499916664818

One of the important differences between educational systems from different countries is the age at which students are placed into separate tracks. We examined the effects of the age at which tracking occurred on student achievement in a comparative perspective, making use of recent waves of three internationally standardized student assessments (PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS). In order to control for unobserved national heterogeneity, we adopted a differences-in-differences approach, in which we controlled secondary school results for differences already present in primary school (i.e. before the introduction of tracking). The results indicate that early tracking has a negative effect on mean performance of students, particularly in the domain of literacy. Moreover, by separating out groups with different abilities, it is shown that early tracking has a very strong negative effect on low achieving students, suggesting that disadvantageous peer- and environmental effects in the lower tracks may have detrimental consequences on students’ academic achievements. By contrast, a null effect on the group of top achieving students was found, suggesting that comprehensive systems can equally challenge high performers to learn at a high pace.

MOLLER, Stephanie; STEARNS, Elizabeth; MICKELSON, Roslyn Arlin; BOTTIA, Martha Cecilia; BANERJEE, Neena. Is Academic Engagement the Panacea for Achievement in Mathematics across Racial/Ethnic Groups? Assessing the Role of Teacher Culture. Social Forces, v. 92, n. 4, p. 1.513-1.544, June, 2014.

https://muse.jhu.edu/article/546225/summary

Student engagement with school symbolizes efforts toward learning and is one of the strongest predictors of academic success. However, returns to engagement vary across racial and ethnic groups. Scholars have established that human agency is constrained by organizational environments, but they have not adequately assessed whether the advantages associated with engagement and the disadvantages associated with disengagement accrue evenly to groups of students depending on the educational environment. Using ECLS-K data, we examine how one aspect of schools’ organizational culture – Collective Pedagogical Teacher Culture – moderates the relationship between engagement and mathematics achievement for students of different racial/ethnic groups in elementary school. Our study suggests that exhibiting the attributes that are valued in American society, i.e., academic engagement or, more abstractly, a strong ethic toward working academically, is not sufficient for the mathematics achievement of many students—especially minority youth. Students must study in environments that nourish and capitalize upon those attributes so that diverse students can enhance their academic trajectories. Teachers are critical for student learning, and when teachers perceive the presence of Collective Pedagogical Teacher Cultures, returns to student engagement are higher.

PARSONS, Eric. Does Attending a Low-Achieving School Affect High-Performing Student Outcomes? Teachers College Record, v. 118, n. 8, 2016.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ec27/a5d599d4b2e6556c45869d8fb4359e836f7f.pdf

Background: Ability tracking in K-12 education has been the subject of much research over the past decades, with proponents arguing that it allows for better instructional targeting and opponents countering that it has the potential to increase inequality. Despite the large volume of research on the topic, however, there is little consensus on the actual impact of ability tracking on student outcomes. Objective/Focus of Study: This article expands on the tracking literature by exploring the impacts on high-achieving students of a type of tracking that has previously been ignored in research–de facto tracking that occurs at the school-level as the result of residential segregation and other factors. High-achieving students represent an important population that may be particularly affected by this type of tracking. To explore whether attending a low-achieving school impacts high-achieving students, two primary outcomes are examined–middle school standardized exam performance and the grade in which high-achieving students take Algebra I. Research Design: I employ a secondary analysis of data taken from the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education’s statewide longitudinal data system, following a cohort of 6,151 initially high-performing Missouri students from the time of their first statewide standardized exam (grade 3) through their entry into high school (grade 9). The research design incorporates regression analysis using a rich set of student and school control variables and value-added modeling methods. Findings: Two key findings emerge from the analysis. First, attending a low-achieving school does not affect the standardized exam performance of initially high-performing students once school quality (as measured by value-added) is accounted for. Second, high-performing students who attend low-achieving schools are more likely to take Algebra I later relative to their counterparts who attend higher-achieving schools. Conclusions/Recommendations: Since de facto school-level tracking appears to have little effect on test scores through grade 8, policy at the elementary level should focus on improving overall school quality, rather than issues of student placement in schools. However, as high performers move into the middle and upper grades, transfer and distance learning policies that encourage high-performing students in low-achieving schools to take more academically-advanced coursework should be considered. Interventions of this nature have the potential to produce substantial benefits in terms of college readiness.

REIS, Sally M.; MCCOACH, D. Betsy; LITTLE, Catherine A.; MULLER, Lisa M.; KANISKAN, R. Burcu. The Effects of Differentiated Instruction and Enrichment Pedagogy on Reading Achievement in Five Elementary Schools. American Educational Research Journal, v. 48, n. 2, p. 462-501, Apr., 2011.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/27975296?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

This experimental study examined the effect of a differentiated, enriched reading program on students’ oral reading fluency and comprehension using the schoolwide enrichment model – reading (SEM-R). Treatment and control conditions were randomly assigned to 63 teachers and 1,192 second through fifth grade students across five elementary schools. Using multilevel modeling, significant differences favoring the SEM-R were found in reading fluency in two schools (Cohen’s d effect sizes of .33 and .10) and in reading comprehension in the high-poverty urban school (Cohen’s d = .27), with no achievement differences in the remaining schools. These results demonstrate that an enrichment reading approach, with differentiated instruction and less whole group instruction, was as effective as or more effective than a traditional whole group basal approach.

SKINDRUD, Karl; GERSTEN, Russell. An Evaluation of Two Contrasting Approaches for Improving Reading Achievement in a Large Urban District. The Elementary School Journal, v. 106, n. 5, p. 389-408, May, 2006.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/505437?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

This independent evaluation of 2 commonly used approaches for accelerating reading achievement and reducing inappropriate special education referrals, Success for All (SFA) and Open Court, was conducted in 12 Title I schools in a large urban district in northern California. To compare the effects of these approaches, we collected data on 936 grade 2 and 3 students over 2 years and 5,694 K through 6 students over 3 years to determine academic and special education enrollment outcomes, respectively. Results supported the prediction that students who used Open Court would outperform those who used SFA on mean SAT9 scores in reading and language but not the prediction that SFA would help students in the bottom quartile of SAT9 score higher or reduce demand for special education services more than Open Court. Neither Open Court nor SFA was associated with reductions in special education enrollment rates, except in Title I schools with the least poverty. A follow-up survey of 17 teachers and an analysis of lesson pacing plans suggested why the teachers saw Open Court as superior on academic outcomes and SFA on social outcomes.

SLAVIN, Robert E.; MADDEN, Nancy A. Success for All at 27: New Developments in Whole-School Reform. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, v. 18, n. 3-4, p. 169-176, 2013.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10824669.2013.862095

This article presents recent developments in Success for All, a whole-school reform approach for high-poverty schools. These include incorporation of Common Core standards, technology-enhanced methods for teaching and tutoring, and extensive use of video for students and teachers. The strong evidence base and success at scale give the program additional importance in policy.

Francês

CHOUINARD, Roch et al. “Les devoirs, corvée inutile ou élément essentiel de la réussite scolaire ?.” Revue des sciences de l’éducation, v. 32, n. 2, p. 307-324, 2006. https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/rse/2006-v32-n2-rse1456/014410ar.pdf

Les auteurs s’intéressent aux écrits scientifiques portant sur les devoirs. La recension effectuée montre que les devoirs constituent une pratique pédago-gique diversifiée et controversée, dont la popularité est cyclique. Par ailleurs, alors que la majorité des études se sont intéressées à l’impact des devoirs sur le rende-ment scolaire, d’autres ont plutôt examiné la question dans la perspective de la motivation des élèves, du développement des habiletés cognitives ou des relations parents-enfant. Dans l’ensemble, même si les devoirs paraissent être une pratique pédagogique bénéfique, les résultats de recherche sont plutôt inconsistants et montrent bien la complexité de la question. Des pistes d’intervention sont suggérées aux éducateurs.

Português

MORGADO, José Carlos. Democratizar a escola através do currículo: em busca de uma nova utopia…. Ensaio: Aval. Pol. Públ. Educ. [online], v. 21, n. 80, p. 433-448, 2013.

http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0104-40362013000300003&script=sci_abstract

Partindo da ideia de que é muito difícil construir uma escola inclusiva no seio de uma sociedade de progresso e abundância, mas onde pululam desigualdades, se acentua a precarização da juventude e proliferam casos de exclusão, importa questionar até que ponto a escola, conjugando o melhor do passado com as mudanças do presente e os avanços do futuro, poderá contribuir para inverter essa situação. Tal ensejo obriga-nos a repensar a missão social da escola e a pugnar para que o currículo, que aí se desenvolve, se assuma como um espaço coletivo de compromissos, um estímulo à participação, uma oportunidade de reflexão e uma forma de desenvolver uma verdadeira educação moral, na qual os valores se assumam como eixos estruturantes de uma sociedade mais justa, mais solidária e mais democrática. Os professores assumem, nesse processo, responsabilidades acrescidas, já que das suas capacidades intelectuais e das virtudes do seu caráter depende, em muito, a excelência do ato pedagógico. É, pois, em torno desses pressupostos que pretendo, ao longo deste texto, interpelar a escola e o currículo em busca de uma nova utopia.

Palavras-chave: currículo, troca de práticas, democratização da escola.